• Journal of Food & Nutritional Sciences
Research Article

Characterizing the Impact of Soaking and Germination on Yellow-Eyed Bean Flour

Journal of Food & Nutritional Sciences [2019; 1(3):139-148]
Received: 12 November 2019, Accepted: 09 December 2019, Published: 16 December 2019

Dried beans are an excellent source of protein and soluble fiber but the presence of off-flavour compounds limits their widespread application as alternate flour sources in food products. Soaking and germinating beans may be effective in modifying the aroma profile of beans but their effectiveness must be demonstrated. The effectiveness of soaking and germination to modify the relative abundance of aroma active compounds (AACs) were compared in yellow-eyed (YE) bean flours using a gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS) approach. Beans were or were not germinated for 72 h, then the beans were freeze-dried, and ground to flour using a kitchen mill. The effect of sanitization, scarification and a combination of these two methods on percent germination was also evaluated. The impact of these treatments on the chemical compositions of the flour samples were also evaluated by measuring the protein, fat, and starch contents, and observing the electrophoretic pattern of extracted proteins. Soaking and germination resulted in different AACs as compared to the ungerminated samples. For example, hexanal was the most abundant volatile in germinated samples (25.2%) whereas in flour from soaked and ungerminated beans, the relative abundance of hexanal was 4.6%. The starch content was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in flour from soaked beans that were ungerminated compared to flour samples from germinated beans. However, germination did not impact the total protein and fat contents across all samples tested. These findings are important for improving processes that impact the aroma profile and the chemical composition of YE bean flours.

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